Autism Teaching Methods: DIR®/Floortime
Dr. Stanley Greenspan, a child psychiatrist, developed a form of play therapy that uses interactions and relationships to reach children with developmental delays and autism. This method is called the Developmental, Individual-Difference, Relationship-Based model, or "DIR®/Floortime" for short. Floortime is based on the theory that autism is caused by problems with brain processing that affect a child's relationships and senses, among other things.
With Floor Time, the child's actions are assumed to be purposeful. It is the parent's or caregiver's role to follow the child's lead and help him develop social interaction and communication skills.
For example, a boy may frequently tap a toy car against the floor. During a Floortime session, his mother may imitate the tapping action, or put her car in the way of the child's car. This will prompt the child to interact with her. From there, the mother encourages the child to develop more complex play schemes and incorporate words and language into play. Floortime is more child-directed than some teaching methods. Its goal is to increase back-and-forth interaction and communication between child and adult.
Some school systems are incorporating this strategy into their programs, but usually do not make this their primary means of educating preschool-aged children with autism or PDD. With its strong emphasis on social and emotional development, the Floor Time method may be a natural complement to a behavioral teaching program -- such as Applied Behavior Analysis or Verbal Behavior -- or to a TEAACH program.
Floortime is being used by some families who prefer a play-based therapy as a primary or secondary treatment, especially for toddlers and preschoolers. Floortime advocates say it can be used along with other therapies.
Research into Floortime is continuing. A randomized, controlled study is underway in Canada to determine the effectiveness of intensive DIR/Floortime treatment for one year and two years.
In a 2005 study, Dr. Greenspan and Serena Wieder Ph.D. reported on 16 teens who had responded favorably to DIR/Floortime therapy in their early childhoods. Ten to 15 years later, these boys had "healthy peer relationship and solid academic skills," according to the Interdisciplinary Council on Developmental and Learning Disorders (ICDL), which Dr. Greenspan chaired. Dr. Greenspan died in 2010.
Floortime DVD Training Series. Set 1 The Basics: Relating and Communicating by Stanley Greenspan M.D. and Serena Wieder Ph.D. This two-disk set teaches the basics of using the Floortime Method to teach your child or student. Floortime DVD Training Series. Set 2 Sensory Regulation and Social Interaction for families who've moved beyond the basics. FloortimeDVD Training Series. Set 3: Symbolic and Logical Thinking completes their training series.
Another resource is Engaging Autism: Using the Floortime Approach to Help Children Relate, Communicate, and Think. Dr. Greenspan and Serena Wieder Ph.D. explain the Floortime method of playing with a young child in order to teach social interaction and communication skills. One of the book's strengths is its broad view of the autism spectrum.
In The Child with Special Needs: Encouraging Intellectual and Emotional Growth, Dr. Greenspan, Dr. Wieder and Robin Simons take aim at children with various developmental disorders, including autism, PDD and delayed speech.
Great Kids: Helping Your Baby and Child Develop the Ten Essential Qualities for a Healthy, Happy Life. Dr. Greenspan shows how to use Floortime principles to help a typical or special-needs child develop qualities such as empathy, curiosity and self-awareness.
Respecting Autism is the last book co-authored by the late Dr. Greenspan. Each chapter discusses the case of a student at The Rebecca (DIR) School, followed by Dr. Greenspan's recommendations for that child. It includes some general information about the students' progress, but details would have been more helpful. In the introduction, co-author Gil Tippy PsyD argues against "evidence-based" practices for autism such as ABA.
ICDL has an internet-based, radio show called Floortime Radio. You may listen to previous shows or download as mp3 files.
Floortime Repository Network is a members-only social network for Floortime therapists and parents, and a place to find videos of Floortime sessions. You must sign up before you can view the web site.