Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

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Winnie
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Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby Winnie » Fri May 24, 2013 10:40 pm

Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

By Charlene Laino, Senior Writer, Gupta Guide
Published: April 30, 2013


A new study has found no evidence of an association between Lyme disease and autism.

"While a proposed link between Lyme disease and autism has garnered considerable attention over the past 2 years, none of the 70 children with autism or 50 unaffected controls in our study had serological evidence of Lyme disease by CDC-recommended two-tier testing," said corresponding author Armin Alaedini, PhD, of Columbia University Medical Center in New York City.

In a research letter in the April 30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, Alaedini and colleagues noted that "among individuals with autism spectrum disorders, rates of seropositivity for Lyme disease of greater than 20% have been reported."

That's potentially dangerous as it suggests that autism can be effectively treated with antibiotics, Alaedini said.

Controlled studies to assess serological evidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi -- the causative agent in Lyme disease -- in patients with autism are lacking, so the researchers decided to put that claim to the test.

Article continues: http://www.medpagetoday.com/Pediatrics/Autism/38750


Study:

Serologic Markers of Lyme Disease in Children With Autism

Mary Ajamian, MS; Barry E. Kosofsky, MD, PhD; Gary P. Wormser, MD; Anjali M. Rajadhyaksha, PhD; Armin Alaedini, PhD

JAMA. 2013;309(17):1771-1773. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.618.

http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1682933
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kulkulkan
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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby kulkulkan » Fri May 24, 2013 11:41 pm

I believe the same people who are making the assertion of link between Lyme and autism ALSO make that assertion that the CDC's two stage test doesn't work well enough to diagnose Lyme (and I suppose this study would support that assertion since didn't find a single case of Lyme in ASD or control). The study ought to really be about if the newer more specialized tests are more accurate or not. Don't know and haven't done any Lyme testing yet.

Winnie
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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby Winnie » Sat May 25, 2013 12:06 am

kulkulkan wrote:I believe the same people who are making the assertion of link between Lyme and autism ALSO make that assertion that the CDC's two stage test doesn't work well enough to diagnose Lyme (and I suppose this study would support that assertion since didn't find a single case of Lyme in ASD or control). The study ought to really be about if the newer more specialized tests are more accurate or not. Don't know and haven't done any Lyme testing yet.


So who are these people making the assertion that the CDC's two-stage test doesn't work well enough to diagnose Lyme?

8)
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kulkulkan
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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby kulkulkan » Sat May 25, 2013 12:19 am

At least one is easy to guess if you have been paying any attention at all on this board. Or just use search function and better yet watch his YouTube video to learn more about Lyme.

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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby Winnie » Sat May 25, 2013 12:50 am

kulkulkan wrote: At least one is easy to guess if you have been paying any attention at all on this board. Or just use search function and better yet watch his YouTube video to learn more about Lyme.


That was so much more trouble than just typing a name of someone credible who claims the two-stage test doesn't work well enough to diagnose Lyme.

Is it someone who has expertise in serology? Infectious diseases? Who?

Surely you know the names of these credible and qualified people, having drawn the conclusion that this study's results mean that the test used doesn't work:

kulkulkan wrote:I believe the same people who are making the assertion of link between Lyme and autism ALSO make that assertion that the CDC's two stage test doesn't work well enough to diagnose Lyme (and I suppose this study would support that assertion since didn't find a single case of Lyme in ASD or control).
Winnie
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biomed_dad
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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby biomed_dad » Sat May 25, 2013 6:51 am

Look up the work of Dr. Cowden and other Lyme experts. Lyme is notoriously difficult to detect. To get an accurate result you often need to use proteolytic enzymes prior to an Igenex test to expose the Lyme.

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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby Winnie » Sat May 25, 2013 1:31 pm

biomed_dad wrote:Look up the work of Dr. Cowden and other Lyme experts. Lyme is notoriously difficult to detect. To get an accurate result you often need to use proteolytic enzymes prior to an Igenex test to expose the Lyme.


umm, Dr. Cowden doesn't have any published work to look up. He doesn't have a background in infectious disease, either.

What he has published, apparently, is an internet sales site peddling his products to cure folks of Lyme that validated tests "can't find" and they think they have. He does appear to be a Marketing expert, however.

Lyme quackery and unvalidated Lyme tests are abundant and readily available on the internet.

By comparison, for instance, Dr. Gary Wormser (one of the study's authors) actually is an expert on Lyme and infectious diseases:

http://www.nymc.edu/People/Gary.P.Wormser/index.html


And he actually does have published work to look at -- here's another:

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra072023

Several lines of reasoning are used to provide support for this diagnostic rationale. One is the unproven and very improbable assumption that chronic B. burgdorferi infection can occur in the absence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi in serum (Table 2Table 2Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease and Chronic Lyme Disease in North America.). Negative results of serologic tests are often attributed to previous antibiotic therapy or to the theory that chronic infection with B. burgdorferi suppresses humoral immune responses; neither theory is well supported by scientific data.12-14 When physicians who diagnose chronic Lyme disease obtain laboratory tests to provide support for their diagnoses, they often rely heavily on “Lyme specialty laboratories.” Such laboratories may perform unvalidated in-house tests that are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, or they may perform standard serologic tests interpreted with the use of criteria that are not evidence-based.11,12,15-17



Came across this article about Igenex testing too -- since you brought it up:

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/23/health/policy/23lyme.html?pagewanted=print&_r=0



So who are these lyme experts making the assertion that the CDC's two-stage test doesn't work well enough to diagnose Lyme, who Kulk mentioned would explain why the study did not find an autism/Lyme link?
Winnie
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mimicry
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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby mimicry » Sat May 25, 2013 5:13 pm

I will be perfectly honest here. Having actually had Lyme Disease, I find alot of this crap about latent lyme and chronic health issues being attributed to undiagnosed lyme hard to swallow. When I was diagnosed with lyme disease I was VERY sick. There was no daily living with the luxury of guessing for me. I had high fevers daily, major pain, major fatigue, several trips to the ER to bring down insanely high fevers, before finally getting a referral to an infectious disease specialist who found it, with the traditional CDC testing.

Winnie
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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby Winnie » Sat May 25, 2013 6:04 pm

^Yes, if I thought my child had Lyme disease (even if I thought this because it was indicated by a quacky test I found on the internet), I wouldn't mess around with internet sales sites and claims, I would want to see someone with actual expertise in Lyme and/or infectious diseases.

Lyme seems to be one of those internet marketing niches that takes advantage of people -- especially people with leanings toward hypochrondia. The internet is just a bonanza for marketers to pitch diseases along with their products that cure these diseases.

Saw this article about hypochondriacs -- related:

As a pediatrician, I’ve had a single brush with hypochondria by proxy. My patient was a teenager with multiple minor complaints — a little fatigue, a string of recent colds, some oral cold sores. Her mother pushed a piece of paper at me, and asked me to order a specialized test for Lyme disease, one I had never heard of. The mother, after doing Internet research and discussing the illness on message boards, was convinced that this was her daughter’s diagnosis, even though her symptoms didn’t suggest it. I tried over and over to reassure her, but she only waved more and more printouts at me with information to support her diagnosis.

It’s this lack of faith between the hypochondriac and his or her doctor that’s at the core of each party’s frustration. The mother refused to believe me. For doctors, this reaction violates the deep desire we have for patients to trust us. It also erodes our confidence. As Susan Baur notes in her book on the subject: Hypochondriacs’ “consistent failure to improve makes it difficult for the doctor to feel effective, just as their lack of consideration and appreciation makes it hard for him to like them and thus feel kind and friendly. Few doctors can tolerate being cast in the dual role of nasty person and impotent healer.”

With the parent of my patient, I held my ground for over an hour. In the end we negotiated that I would dig into her ream of printouts later and then call her to discuss it further. It didn’t take long to learn that the custom test the mother had championed lowers the bar for what constitutes a diagnosis of Lyme disease, so that essentially everybody who takes it receives that diagnosis. When I expressed my concerns to her, she insisted, “There’s no such thing as a false positive Lyme test.” Before I could respond, she got angry and accused me of obstructing her child’s path to health. Needless to say, like countless other doctors and hypochondriacs, we parted ways.

Knowing what I know now about the nature of hypochondria, all of this was easy to foresee. The mother of this child wanted, desperately, to get her daughter a diagnosis, a grand unifying explanation for what was likely nothing more than a bunch of random ailments strung together. Had I ordered that lab test and given her this false diagnosis of Lyme disease, I would have sentenced her to 6 months of intravenous antibiotics through a surgically placed central line.

Full article: http://www.salon.com/2011/08/07/hypochondriac_patients_poprx/
Winnie
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kulkulkan
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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby kulkulkan » Sat May 25, 2013 7:34 pm

Aside from many clinicians such as Dr cowden or Dr. Klinghardt that actually practice (not research), the main most vocal proponent of Lyme induced neuropsychiatric disorder, who has actually tried to publish, is Dr. Bransfield (a psychiatrist). 

http://www.ilads.org/ilads_news/2012/ro ... -symptoms/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17980971/

Instead of attacking credibility or expertise (which appears to be your standard modus operandi) perhaps first read the hypothesis.  We already know the hypothesis hasn't been tested and in order to test it, one would first need to agree on how to clinically diagnose chronic Lyme or post-Lyme disease syndrome in the first place (or whether it even exists).   An acute ongoing infection is easy to test with the 2 stage catching more than 90% of the cases. It is certainly possible that hypothesis is wrong. I don't have a position on it as I haven't researched it much nor done any testing. It is not on the top of my list of things to investigate.

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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby Winnie » Sat May 25, 2013 9:37 pm

kulkulkan wrote: Aside from many clinicians such as Dr cowden or Dr. Klinghardt that actually practice (not research), the main most vocal proponent of Lyme induced neuropsychiatric disorder, who has actually tried to publish, is Dr. Bransfield (a psychiatrist).

http://www.ilads.org/ilads_news/2012/ro ... -symptoms/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17980971/

Instead of attacking credibility or expertise (which appears to be your standard modus operandi) perhaps first read the hypothesis.


The study (OP) appears intended to address such a hypothesis. From Bransfield’s (quite oddly worded) hypothesis you linked:

Support for this hypothesis includes multiple cases of mothers with Lyme disease and children with autism spectrum disorders; fetal neurological abnormalities associated with tick-borne diseases; similarities between tick-borne diseases and autism spectrum disorder regarding symptoms, pathophysiology, immune reactivity, temporal lobe pathology, and brain imaging data; positive reactivity in several studies with autistic spectrum disorder patients for Borrelia burgdorferi (22%, 26% and 20-30%) and 58% for mycoplasma; similar geographic distribution and improvement in autistic symptoms from antibiotic treatment. It is imperative to research these and all possible causes of autism spectrum disorders in order to prevent every preventable case and treat every treatable case until this disease has been eliminated from humanity.


Instead of dismissing the study results based on your belief that evidence-based medicine is inept with untoward motives and therefore trumped by internet “clinicians” with alt-med sales sites (which appears to be your standard modus operandi):

kulkulkan wrote: I believe the same people who are making the assertion of link between Lyme and autism ALSO make that assertion that the CDC's two stage test doesn't work well enough to diagnose Lyme (and I suppose this study would support that assertion since didn't find a single case of Lyme in ASD or control).


…perhaps you could just link us to something that supports your statement?

Didn’t see it while scanning anything you linked – perhaps I missed the part about the two-stage test not working well enough to diagnose Lyme. Or are you just shifting the goalposts again (which also appears to be a standard modus operandi of late)?

Credibility and expertise matter. I certainly wouldn’t put my trust in a “clinician” like Klinghardt or Cowden who peddle quackery on the internet – in the event my child actually did have Lyme, that could be very dangerous.
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kulkulkan
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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby kulkulkan » Sat May 25, 2013 9:50 pm

Google Dr. Bransfield - he has also written on lyme testing as well. Is he (a psychiatrist) or any clinician automatically a quack because they question CDC testing and want better screening / more investigations?

Also your next modus operandi which is well documented here after attacking the clinicians and authors is attacking the parents. On this one, I am being neutral here saying I don't know and this study won't convince the likes of dr bransfield who doesn't believe the current testing is adequate to diagnose all cases of chronic lyme. That's all that I am saying here, not supporting or dismissing the hypothesis or the Igenex testing because like you I haven't researched either.

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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby Winnie » Sat May 25, 2013 10:40 pm

kulkulkan wrote: Google Dr. Bransfield - he has also written on lyme testing as well. Is he (a psychiatrist) or any clinician automatically a quack because they question CDC testing and want better screening / more investigations?


lol, you google Dr. Bransfield and point out where he has shown the CDC's test doesn't work well enough to diagnose Lyme and therefore wouldn't find any cases among children with autism in a study. It was your assertion:

kulkulkan wrote:I believe the same people who are making the assertion of link between Lyme and autism ALSO make that assertion that the CDC's two stage test doesn't work well enough to diagnose Lyme (and I suppose this study would support that assertion since didn't find a single case of Lyme in ASD or control).


I never said Bransfield is a quack -- I didn't notice him peddling quackery on a sales site. But I also don't know how sound his hypothesis is either. Klinghardt and Cowden do peddle quackery on the internet, however.

And I certainly didn't suggest that anyone is a quack for wanting better tests or investigation -- that's just you shifting the goalposts again instead of actually supporting your statement.

I'm skeptical that any significant percentage of toddlers with autism are actually suffering from Lyme, "chronic Lyme," or late-stage Lyme, however. And I guess that's pretty consistent with the findings of the study.

Certainly some children with autism could have Lyme disease, but I'm not buying all the Lyme-bugs-hold-onto-metals and other woo that accompanies internet Lyme detox quackery either. That could be dangerous for a child who actually does have Lyme disease.
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kulkulkan
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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby kulkulkan » Sat May 25, 2013 11:44 pm

Here you go.

http://www.anapsid.org/lyme/bransfield-neuropsych.pdf

The commonly used blood, urine, and spinal fluid tests have a significant rate of false negatives in the chronic neuropsychiatric Lyme disease population. See addendum - Seronegative Lyme - on page 14.


That is his personal opinion based on his clinical experience. He doesn't provide proof of his assertion so you can certainly argue that seronegative Lyme is quackery. I don't have a personal opinion on this. But if the Lyme is as hard to find as H phylori with standard blood testing (though newer non standard DNA stool test for h pylori may show positive despite being seronegative), then it is certainly plausible that he is correct.

María Luján
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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby María Luján » Sun May 26, 2013 12:09 am

Hi kukulkan
Evidently Lyme is difficult to diagnose, looking at the research on the topic
BMC Infect Dis. 2012 Dec 10;12:344. CXCL13 may improve diagnosis in early neuroborreliosis with atypical laboratory findings.Borde JP, Meier S, Fingerle V, Klier C, Hübner J, Kern WV.


Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Sep;53(6):541-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir464.
Two-tiered antibody testing for Lyme disease with use of 2 enzyme immunoassays, a whole-cell sonicate enzyme immunoassay followed by a VlsE C6 peptide enzyme immunoassay.
Branda JA, Linskey K, Kim YA, Steere AC, Ferraro MJ.
The 2-EIA algorithm in early LD had similar sensitivity as C6 testing alone, and both strategies had better sensitivity than did standard 2-tiered testing (61% and 64%, respectively, vs 48%; P = .03 and P = .008)...The positive predictive value of the 2-EIA algorithm was 70%, compared with 66% for standard 2-tiered testing and 43% for the C6 EIA alone.


Infect Drug Resist. 2011;4:1-9. Lyme disease: the next decade.Stricker RB, Johnson L.
Concurrent clinical implementation of proteomic screening offers a chance to correct significant deficiencies in Lyme testing

I have to read the analytical details presented in the manuscript but it seems that CDC-recommended two-tier testing was used.

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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby kulkulkan » Sun May 26, 2013 1:01 am

Thanks Maria. Good to see research being done on more accurate testing. Maybe it will validate Dr Bransfield clinical experience and other lyme clinicians that have been practicing for decades that are presumed quacks for using non standardized testing.

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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby Winnie » Sun May 26, 2013 1:20 am

María Luján wrote:Hi kukulkan
Evidently Lyme is difficult to diagnose, looking at the research on the topic

Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Sep;53(6):541-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir464.
Two-tiered antibody testing for Lyme disease with use of 2 enzyme immunoassays, a whole-cell sonicate enzyme immunoassay followed by a VlsE C6 peptide enzyme immunoassay.
Branda JA, Linskey K, Kim YA, Steere AC, Ferraro MJ.
The 2-EIA algorithm in early LD had similar sensitivity as C6 testing alone, and both strategies had better sensitivity than did standard 2-tiered testing (61% and 64%, respectively, vs 48%; P = .03 and P = .008)...The positive predictive value of the 2-EIA algorithm was 70%, compared with 66% for standard 2-tiered testing and 43% for the C6 EIA alone.


Maria, what you omitted (...) quoting ^the above might be important -- here is what you quoted, except this time including what you omitted (in bold):

Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Sep;53(6):541-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir464.
Two-tiered antibody testing for Lyme disease with use of 2 enzyme immunoassays, a whole-cell sonicate enzyme immunoassay followed by a VlsE C6 peptide enzyme immunoassay.
Branda JA, Linskey K, Kim YA, Steere AC, Ferraro MJ.
The 2-EIA algorithm in early LD had similar sensitivity as C6 testing alone, and both strategies had better sensitivity than did standard 2-tiered testing (61% and 64%, respectively, vs 48%; P = .03 and P = .008) For late disease, all 3 strategies had 100% sensitivity. The specificity of the 2-EIA algorithm was equal to that of standard 2-tiered testing, and both 2-tiered strategies were more specific than C6 testing alone (for both, 99.5% vs 98.4%; P = .01). The positive predictive value of the 2-EIA algorithm was 70%, compared with 66% for standard 2-tiered testing and 43% for the C6 EIA alone.



I don't see anything in any of what you posted that would call the results of the study into question. I don't see any testing differences great enough to account for a complete failure to find any Lyme seropositive children in the sample -- especially when "It has been proposed that Borrelia burgdorferi infection is associated with ∼25% of children with autism spectrum disorders," as was stated in the abstract.


Hey, where is the evidence (proposed) that Lyme is associated with 25% of children with autism anyway?
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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby Winnie » Sun May 26, 2013 1:56 am

kulkulkan wrote:Thanks Maria. Good to see research being done on more accurate testing. Maybe it will validate Dr Bransfield clinical experience and other lyme clinicians that have been practicing for decades that are presumed quacks for using non standardized testing.


Nothing Maria posted involves research that validates what quacks are peddling to diagnose and treat Lyme.

The first article she posted involves lumbar puncture and CSF, so even this could not be used on a group of asymptomatic children for research pertaining to presence of Lyme.

Quackery like Klinghardt's homeopathic Lyme treatments are dangerous for children who actually do have Lyme if evidence-based treatments are withheld. Probably a way to develop late-stage Lyme.
Winnie
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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby kulkulkan » Sun May 26, 2013 2:08 am

This is the full paper by Dr Bransfield. The testing referenced here was not 2 tiered (different studies used different tests, one study used igenex) what is interesting isn't just that some of the testing showed 20-30% possible coinfection or antibodies in ASD but rather the controls showed 0% using the same test. To me this would suggest testing ASD mother vs control mothers rather than dismissing this finding / hypothesis with 2-tier testing which the hypothesis didn't use to begin with. It may very well be another maternal risk factor.

http://www.lymebook.com/med-hypothesis-article.pdf

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Re: Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

Postby Winnie » Sun May 26, 2013 9:35 am

kulkulkan wrote:This is the full paper by Dr Bransfield. The testing referenced here was not 2 tiered (different studies used different tests, one study used igenex) what is interesting isn't just that some of the testing showed 20-30% possible coinfection or antibodies in ASD but rather the controls showed 0% using the same test. To me this would suggest testing ASD mother vs control mothers rather than dismissing this finding / hypothesis with 2-tier testing which the hypothesis didn't use to begin with. It may very well be another maternal risk factor.

http://www.lymebook.com/med-hypothesis-article.pdf


Bransfield draws some really odd conclusions in that paper – and oddly worded too.

But to your question, using the LIAF “study” cited that found 0% in controls, perhaps because

1) the selection of 19 subjects with ASD who also had an indication of immune dysfunction

Compared to

2) 5 normal controls

And 3) the way that IgeneX interpreted the test :

A LIAF study tested the blood of 19 children with an ASD diagnoses plus an indication of immune dysfunction and five normal controls. Patients were not screened for BI before study entry. WB and IFA IgG and IgM were performed by IgeneX Laboratory. A result was considered Bbsl positive for exposure if there was reactivity of one or more Bbsl specific bands. 26% of the ASD children were positive compared to 0 controls [17].


And 4) this unpublished “study” was done by the Lyme Induced Autism Foundation -- LIAF -- (Tami Duncan founded and is listed in the citation) in conjunction with IgeneX, interestingly – so there may be other reasons -- the citation:

[17] Duncan T. Informal Lyme-autism study: a preliminary report. LIA Conf 2007.



So let’s chase this bunny and see where it goes, in the interest of “high quality evidence” and all.


To say that LIAF is the epicenter for autism/lyme quackery would be an understatement:

http://www.lymeinducedautism.com/findalymeautismdoctor.html


So who is Tami Duncan? Aside from the founder of LIAF and person listed on the citation Bransfield used in his hypotheses paper?

Tami is special. She has more powers than a super hero and will share these with you for $75 an hour. You can even be healed over the phone (her distance healing). She claims to have a lot of clair-gifts, which I guess come in handy when the science is skinny.


Tami Duncan's sales site is interesting in a train-wreck sort of way – haven’t heard stuff like this since Jenny McCarthy's “Indigo Moms” site:

With this incredible knowledge I've been exposed to with the foundation, my son and I have actually shed our "labels". Michael no longer qualifies for the autism diagnosis or Lyme disease. I have also shed the Lyme disease diagnosis and have experienced incredible healing over the last few years. The story doesn't stop here. You see with every challenge (suicide, autism, Lyme disease) a new door has opened. I will tell you what is one of the best kept secrets about autism. It is such a secret that many parents themselves don't even know it. Learning this secret opened up this incredible new world for myself and my family.

Here goes....children with autism have special gifts. By special I mean special "spiritual" gifts. Many have the ability to see spirits, psychic visions, talk to angels and speak telepathically. Parents may misunderstand these gifts as night terrors, hallucinations or just babbling. But when one digs deeper and looks at these children through a new lens, one can see that they are indeed special. They are here for a purpose. There purpose is still to be revealed but we know they are here to change OUR ways, show us what we can do better. They teach us about healthier eating, environmental chemicals and pesticides that harm us, and bring us faith and the power to believe.

This autism epidemic is a WAKE UP CALL for our society. Because I have learned this secret, through first hand experience with the amazing gifts of my son, I have examined and found my own gifts within. If you would like to read more about the special gifts of autism I would recommend...Awesomism by Suzy Miller and Autism and the God Connection by William Stillman. Two other very fascinating sites are http://www.meglupin.com and http://westonschmier.com/ .

In my uncovering of these gifts I have found a beautiful gift of healing. I am still growing my gifts but am experiencing the following:

Claircognizant: (clear knowing). This is the gift of simply knowing that something is correct without any doubt. This can be about a person or situation, its just a clear feeling of absolute and total knowing.

Clairsentience (clear sensing). This a gift of sensitive feeling of energies or having a sense of angels or some one in spirit around them or the person they are doing a reading for. A psychic medium with this gift tends to feel rather than actually see.

Clairaudience (clear hearing). This is the gift of hearing voices from the world of spirit. This often manifests in to different ways to the psychic medium. Some hear the voice within there heads, others hear the voices out side there heads like they are listening to a person talking to them. Of course the client can not hear all this.

Clairvoyance (clear seeing). Some mediums actually see animals, people, objects and angels in spirit form in there minds eye. Psychic mediums often refer to having a spirit guide or guides, who help and give them information to give to the client. I am still developing this skill.

Continues: http://www.epiphanyhealingarts.com/MyHealingJourney.html



Quickly googled the co-authors of Bransfield's paper, and not surprisingly, they are all “Lyme Literate Doctors” (LLMDs) also associated with and listed on the LIAF site – and profit from treating children whose parents believe have “Lyme-Induced Autism.”

Apparently (and not surprisingly) the journal “Medical Hypotheses” does not require authors to declare COI, but Bransfield's paper acknowledges LIAF for paying for publication and thanks Tami Duncan and others. It's a pretty poor excuse of a "journal" anyway -- I'd be surprised if Bransfield's paper would withstand any legit peer review.

Bransfield’s stock just went down in my eyes – I dunno why he would use junk like this and associate himself with quacks if he wants to be taken seriously.
Winnie
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